Epidemiology and Demography in Public Health

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Epidemiology, Population Health, Health, & Public Health

Apply now. Academic enquiries Email programme director. Talk to a student Contact student ambassadors. Skip to main navigation. Found 0 results for your search. Showing 0 to 0. Youtube link. Why this course? What are my career prospects as a health demographer? Graduates from this programme leave with a set of key skills and experience in theories and methods of population sciences, biostatistics, epidemiology, research methods and data analysis which enable them to embark on a diverse range of careers in: public health academic research NGOs reproductive health programmes health services government statistical offices policy and planning Find out more about careers opportunities.

1. Introduction

By the end of this programme students should be able to: demonstrate advanced knowledge and understanding of scientific, evidence-based approaches to the study of population issues assess and apply these approaches to inform development, health and population programmes formulate research questions and use demographic and health data, and appropriate methods of analysis, to address them identify causes and consequences of population change and relate these to underlying population dynamics demonstrate advanced knowledge and understanding of demographic behaviour in social, economic and policy contexts assess and apply findings of population studies to health and social policy demonstrate advanced knowledge and understanding of major population trends, including historical trends, in developed and developing countries.

Changes to the course. Changes to the programme LSHTM will seek to deliver this programme in accordance with the description set out on this programme page. Entry requirements. The closing date for preliminary applications is 6 January The most commonly associated conditions are the bacterial pneumonia, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung abscesses [ 52 , 53 , 54 ].

The bacteria create their own ecological niches on different surfaces of the mouth like teeth, gingival sulcus, dorsal area of the tongue and oral and pharyngeal mucosa using the saliva and crevicular fluid like their main nutritional source, and through bacteremia, derive in systemic processes.

The sepsis is the responsible for the beginning and progression of diverse inflammatory diseases like arthritis, peptic ulcers and appendicitis [ 54 ]. Pneumonia is the infection of the lung parenchyma caused by several infectious agents that include bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. Bacteria of the oral flora like Actinobacillus actinomycetem-commitans , Actinomyces Israeli , and the anaerobic P gingivalis, and Fusobacterium , can be aspirated and taken to the lower airways and cause pneumonia [ 55 , 56 ]. The source can be from bacteria of the normal flora or from periodontal cases [ 56 ].

The relationship between quality of life and oral health has been understood like a multidimensional concept that reports the aspects concerning to oral health including the functional, social and pshycological aspect of the individuals [ 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 ].

Jennifer B. Dowd – School of Public Health

One of the major contributions of dentistry is to improve and maintain the quality of life of the person since most oral diseases and their consequences have an impact on the performance of daily activities [ 36 ]. The contemporary concepts of health suggest that oral health could be defined as the physical, psychological and social wellbeing in relation to the dental status as well as the hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity and not only absence of disease [ 36 ].

This definition proposes that the measure of oral health not only has to take into account oral indexes that measure the presence or severity of a pathology physical well-being but it must also complemented with social and pshycological measures [ 36 , 60 , 61 ]. Traditionally, the methods used to estimate oral health, have been limited to clinic indicators or oral indexes, and the presence or absence of disease.

This view leaves out all the subjective measures, in other words the perception of the persons about their oral health status. This view about oral health related quality of life OHRQOL promotes the knowledge of the origin and behavior of the oral diseases, largely because the social factors and the environment are the main causes of these diseases and some interventions can be applied [ 62 , 63 , 64 ]. In elder people, the self-perception of oral health can be affected by the perception of other personal values, like the belief that some pains and disabilities are unavoidable because of the ageing.

These ideas can lead to the over and under estimation of the oral health condition. The available information about self-perception is subjective, and for this reason the perception about how oral health affects the quality of life must be evaluated according to instruments that have been adapted and validated on specific populations. The dental status in old people has a repercussion on their ability to perform daily activities affecting their quality of life with a bigger impact on some activities such as eating, speaking and pronunciation [ 61 ].

Research Interests

The existing subjective measures on oral health as well as the focus on oral health cannot provide data that helps the decision makers to allocate the resources related with improving the oral health of the elderly, however they can give an idea about the degree of affection for the individual and populations [ 62 ]. Oral health problems among old people are caused mainly by the accumulation of sequels that the null assistance to the dental services has left as well as the lack of self-care in this age group. The most common affections are the tooth loss, coronal and root caries, periodontal diseases, lesions derivated from the use of defective prosthesis and temporomandibular joint pain.

Besides, this group, can also present oral cancer and oral manifestations of other systemic diseases. These conditions are associated with pain when chewing, a frequent reason of consultation in primary care. It is important to continue studying the convergence of sociodemographic information with the oral health diagnosis, to determine the therapeutic needs and the factors that make it difficult to access the dental services and to design adequate interventions to solve the most common oral health problems of this group of the population. Public and private oral health services must prevent the onset of diseases that can produce serious effects on quality of life of the elderly.

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Downloaded: The demographic and epidemiologic transition 2. Demographic trends of the aging population — The international perspective One of the best indicators of the improvement of the health of a population is ageing which is an intrinsic process of the demographic transition. Oral health problems in the elder population The analysis of the oral health of elders has taken interest recently due to the accelerated changes on the demographic structure.

Among the main problems that affect the oral health there are: 3.

University of London

Disorders of the oral mucosa In the oral mucosa of old people there may be atrophy of the epithelium, decrease of the keratin and number of cells of the connective tissue, an increase of the intercellular substance and decrease in the oxygen consume. Tooth loss Complete or partial prosthesis is the most common treatment for tooth loss. Conditions related to the use of dentures Denture stomatitis is one of the most frequent diseases that affect the oral tissues in denture wearers.

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Hygiene of the prosthesis The prevalence of denture stomatitis has been strongly correlated with hygiene [ 21 , 22 ]. Prosthetic trauma This is caused by maladjusted prosthetic devices and bad habits in their use [ 19 , 20 ]. Candidiasis infection The presence of plaque promotes the colonization of fungi species like candida on the prosthetic surface or the mucosa [ 19 , 20 , 22 ]. Dietetic factors The diet of the elderly is characterized for being very limited since the lack of a denture in good conditions avoids eating fresh fruits and vegetables or raw food.

Caries Caries can be considered an infectious disease caused by multiple factors: biologic, social, economical, cultural and environmental. The prevalence of dental caries in developed countries has decreased because a high sector of the old population has access to dental services promoting a major use of dental prevention measures, this allows, that the individuals keep a higher number of functional teeth [ 18 , 30 ] The other kind of caries, root caries, is very common in the elderly since it is a consequence of the gingival recession.

Periodontal disease Periodontal disease constitutes one of the main causes of tooth loss [ 16 ]. Xerostomy or low salivary flow Saliva is a complex exocrine secretion, important for the maintenance of the homeostasis of the oral cavity. Pain Pain is often a manifestation of the oral problems reflected on other facial structures like the orbital frontal region that can be confounded with classic headache. Links between oral health and systemic diseases It is clear that oral health problems affect the general condition of old people. We offer training in the theory of statistics and biostatistics, computer implementation of analytic methods, and opportunities to use this knowledge in areas of biological and medical research.

PhD in Biostatistics.

Our program offers a curricular track for students to acquire proficiency in both biostatistics and epidemiology. Our training emphasizes the development of skills applicable to the study of the occurrence and distribution of disease, focusing on determining the impact and magnitude of disease frequency so that effective control measures can be designed. May 22, Photo Credit: Mauricio Ayovi Mass gatherings have long been known to increase risks of infectious disease outbreaks. Music festivals, sporting events, religious pilgrimages, and other assemblies of significant numbers of people create conditions that strain local infrastructure, increase contact rates, overextend sanitation infrastructure, and thereby facilitate the spread of pathogens.