Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome (Facts on File Library of World History)

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The cover debris was probably from a newer palace that was built over the older one. I claim that this manmade material might possibly be the first real instance of ancient concrete. This should certainly be studied in more detail. I quote the author in my book because I do not believe engineers are aware of the potential importance of this find.

This is the ultimate book on the Pantheon. It is hard to find except in very good libraries.

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It is a detailed architectural and archeological study of the building, with many important engineering observations. Includes many beautiful old drawings and photos of the Pantheon throughout the ages. The best single book on the building that I have seen. Lugli, G. Giovanni Bardi Publiisher, Rome, , p.

Macaulay, D. Houghton Miffin Company, Boston, , p. This book gives sketches of unusual Roman construction practices. He shows pile driving, pier placement, cofferdam construction, truss and roadway construction, roofs; I have found his sketches quite true in every detail and recommend the book for the engineers, archaeologists, and historians. He discusses brick and tile work, but not concrete. MacDonald, W. Yale University Press, London, , p. This is an excellent overview of the architectural features of the Pantheon, with site plans, building plans and sections.

Includes discussion of other buildings, both ancient and modern, which were influenced by the Pantheon's architecture. Does not discuss engineering or construction issues in much depth. MacMullen, R. Malinowski, R. Concrete International: Design and Construction. Detroit, Michigan, Jan. Maloney, J. Council for British Archaeology Pub. Mark, R. March , p. This is an excellent engineering study of the structural behavior of the dome.

They performed a finite element analysis of building, including the external step rings and the longitudinal cracks in the dome. One of the surprising results is that the Romans might have viewed the "dome" structurally as a set of arches, and designed it accordingly! This is a "must have" article if you are interested in the structure of the Pantheon.

Mason, B. John Wiley and Sons, New York, , p. This book provides a technical discussion of research into geology to explain rock composition.

Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome

For instance, it explains how a pozzolan material can be created by ground water seeping through silica. Pozzolan material was a key component of ancient concrete. Mason, O. Mercer, H.

Ancient Rome in 20 minutes

Middleton, J. Adam and Charles Black Publishers, London, , p. Mielenz, R. Academic Press, New York, , p. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, , p. Morgan, M. Dover Publications, New York, , p. See also Bill Thayer's on-line version. Nash, E. Frederick A. Praeger, New York, , p. Neuburger, A. New York, , p.

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Neuburger was an astute researcher who was able to acquire many facts about Roman construction. For example, he shows the Roman tools dug out of the ashes of Pompeii; the metal tools resemble the modern types so we can see the Roman technology first-hand. One picture shows the method of applying plaster. There are comments on ancient concrete including the method of using concrete under water. New Encyclopedia Britannica , Vol. Chicago, , p. Norsker, H. Friedr Vieweg and Son Publisher, Braunschweig, , p. Orchard, D. Applied Science Publishers, London, , p.

Orchard is a fine scientist who experimented with concrete materials which are recorded in his book. He found the unusual case where crystalline silica was cut so fine ground up that it had a reaction with calcium. This is counter to the theory that only pozzolan materials react with calcium in making ancient concrete.

Orlandos, A. Editions E. Orlandos provides many details on Roman construction such as the mixing of mortar used in making concrete. For example, his pictures show the shovels and hoes as they were depicted in cut stone of that period. Patton, W. John Wiley and Son, N. Peckworth, H.


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American Concrete Pipe Assoc. Petrie, W. Popovics, S. Potter, T.


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University of California Press, Berkeley, California, , p. Pye, L.

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Plenum Press, New York, , p. Ramachandran, V. Chemical Publishing Co.